Kawagoe was originally a castle town of the Kawagoe clan. Many buildings still stand after many centuries surviving the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and bombings in 1945.
The 1923 earthquake pretty much devastated Tokyo where 105,000 died in the magnitude 7.9 - 8.4 quake that lasted over 4 minutes. Pics of Tokyo taken at the time can be seen at Wikipedia.
Then Tokyo was re-devastated again in the B29 bombings where another 100,000 people were killed - photos of re-devastated Tokyo at Tokyo Uni.